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Collegium of State Expenses

The Collegium of State Expenses was a Russian executive body, created in the government reform of 1717. It was de-established during the decentralising reforms of Catherine II of Russia. Its first President was Ivan Musin-Pushkin.

Governorate-General (Russian Empire)

Governorate-General was an administrative-territorial division of the Russian Empire from 1775–1917. Governorate-General usually consisted of set of guberniyas, oblasts. Sometimes used interchangeably with krai or military guberniya. Moscow and S ...

Belarusian Governorate General

The Belarusian Governorate General was a military-administrative division of the Russian Empire established on December 12, 1796. Its capital was Vitebsk. Since the reform of February 27 1802 it was named Витебское и Могилёвское генерал-губернато ...

Governor-Generalship of the Steppes

The Governor-Generalship of the Steppes, or General Government of the Steppes, was a portion of Imperial Russian Central Asia which included both much of modern Eastern and Central Kazakhstan and the region around Omsk, which was formerly part of ...

Hajji Piri

Hajji Piri or Khvajeh Piri or Agha Piri and later known as Mohammad Piri was a Safavid official of Armenian origin. He served during the reign of King Suleiman I as mayor of New Julfa, and briefly as controller of the assay. He was also one of th ...

Fath-Ali Khan Daghestani

Fath-Ali Khan Daghestani, was a Lezgian nobleman, who served as the Grand Vizier of the Safavid king Sultan Husayn from 1716 to 1720. A member of an aristocratic Lezgian family native to Daghestan, Daghestani was unlike the earlier Safavid grand ...

Hatem Beg Ordubadi

Hatem "Beg" Ordubadi, was an Iranian aristocrat from the Ordubadi family, who served as the grand vizier of the Safavid king Abbas I from 1591 to 1610/1.

List of Qollar-aghasis

The Qollar-aghasi, also spelled Qullar-aqasi, was the commander of the Safavid Empires elite gholam corps. The holder of the office was one of the most powerful individuals in the entire Safavid state, and in fact by the end of the Safavid-era, h ...

List of Qurchi-bashis

The Qurchi-bashi, also spelled Qorchi-bashi, was the head of the qurchis, the royal bodyguard of the Safavid shah. There were also qurch-bashis who were stationed in some of the provinces and cities. They were all, however, subordinate to the sup ...

List of Tofangchi-aghasis

The Tofangchi-aghasi, also spelled Tufangchi-aqasi, and otherwise known as the Tofangchi-bashi, was the commander of the Safavid Empires musketeer corps. The tofangchi-aghasi was assisted by numerous officers, i.e. minbashis, yuzbashis, dahbashis ...

List of Tupchi-bashis

The Tupchi-bashi was the commander of the Safavid Empires artillery corps. He was responsible for the artillery battery and needed materials in relation to the artillery pieces as well. The tupchi-bashi received assistance by an administrative st ...

Mir Najm Zargar Gilani

Mir Najm Zargar Gilani, was an Iranian aristocrat of Gilaki origin, who was the second person to serve as the vakil of the Safavid Empire. A native of Gilan in northern Iran, Najm Zargar was originally a goldsmith in Rasht, but due to his Iranian ...

Shapur-Khwarrah

Shapur-Khwarrah was one of the four administrative divisions of the Sasanian province of Pars. The other administrative divisions were Ardashir-Khwarrah, Istakhr and Darabgerd, while a fifth named Arrajan was founded in the early 6th century by K ...

Abu Yafur ibn Alqama

Abu Yafur ibn Alqama ibn Malik ibn Uday ibn Dhumayl ibn Thawr ibn Asis ibn Ruba ibn Namara ibn Lakhm was a Lakhmid general who governed al-Hirah for some years after the death of al-Numan II ibn al-Aswad in 503. Abu Yafur was of the Dhumayl, a no ...

Amazasp III of Iberia

Amazasp III or Hamazasp I was a king of Iberia from 260 to 265 AD. He probably belonged to the Arsacid Period of Iberia. Although Amazasp III is unfortunately unknown to the High Medieval & Georgian literary traditions, some Georgian chronicles d ...

Amr ibn Imru al-Qays

Amr ibn Imru al-Qays was the third Lakhmid king of al-Hirah, reigning in 328–363. A son of the famed Imru al-Qays ibn Amr who had defected to the Roman Empire, he returned to Sassanid allegiance. His mother was Mariya al-Barriyah, a sister of the ...

Artaxias IV

Artaxias IV or Artashir IV who is also known as Artaxias, Artashes, Artashes IV, Artashir, Ardases, Ardasir and Artases was a prince who served as a Sassanid client king of eastern Armenia from 422 until 428. Artaxias IV was the last Arsacid king ...

Aspacures II of Iberia

Aspacures II, of the Chosroid Dynasty, was the king of Iberia from c. 363 to 365. He was the second son of Mirian III of Iberia and Nana of Iberia. His name, recorded by the contemporaneous historian Ammianus Marcellinus XXVII 12. 16, is evidentl ...

Khosrov IV of Armenia

Khosrov IV, was a Prince who served as a Sassanid King of Arsacid Armenia, which flourished during the second half of the 4th century & first half of the 5th century, from 387 until 389.

Mirian III of Iberia

Mirian III was a king of Iberia or Kartli, contemporaneous to the Roman emperor Constantine the Great. He was the founder of the royal Chosroid dynasty. According to the early medieval Georgian annals and hagiography, Mirian was the first Christi ...

Al-Numan III ibn al-Mundhir

Al-Numān III ibn al-Mundhir, also transcribed Naaman, Nuaman and Noman and often known by the patronymic Abu Qabus, was the last Lakhmid king of al-Hirah and a Nestorian Christian Arab. He is considered as one of the most important Lakhmid rulers.

Pharasmanes V of Iberia

Parsman V, of the Chosroid Dynasty, was the king of Iberia from 547 to 561. Parsman was the son and successor of Bakur II, and was succeeded by his nephew Parsman VI. According to the medieval Armenian adaptation of the Georgian Chronicles, in th ...

Trdat of Iberia

Trdat, of the Chosroid Dynasty, was the king of Iberia from c. 394 to 406. According to the Georgian chronicles, he was a son of Rev II, son of Mirian III, the first Christian king of Iberia and Salome. Trdats brother was Sauromaces II of Iberia. ...

Vachagan III

Vachagan III the Pious was the last king of Caucasian Albania from the Arsacid Dynasty. He was a brother of Vache II and was restored to the throne by Balash. During his reign Church of Caucasian Albania was growing. Vachagan persecuted pagans an ...

Aberdeen

Aberdeen ; Scots: Aiberdeen, listen ; Scottish Gaelic: Obar Dheathain ; Latin: Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is Scotlands third most populous city, one of Scotlands 32 local government council areas and the United Kingdoms 39th m ...

Aberdeenshire

Aberdeenshire is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. It takes its name from the County of Aberdeen which has substantially different boundaries. The Aberdeenshire council area includes all of the area of the historic counties of Aberdeenshir ...

Angus, Scotland

Angus is one of the 32 local government council areas of Scotland, a registration county and a lieutenancy area. The council area borders Aberdeenshire, Dundee City and Perth and Kinross. Main industries include agriculture and fishing. Global ph ...

Clackmannanshire

Clackmannanshire ; Scottish Gaelic: Siorrachd Chlach Mhannainn) is a historic county and council area in Scotland, bordering the council areas of Stirling, Fife and Perth & Kinross and the historic counties of Perthshire, Stirlingshire and Fife. ...

Dumfries and Galloway

Dumfries and Galloway is one of 32 unitary council areas of Scotland and is located in the western Southern Uplands. It comprises the historic counties of Dumfriesshire, Stewartry of Kirkcudbright and Wigtownshire, the latter two of which are col ...

East Ayrshire

East Ayrshire is one of thirty-two council areas of Scotland. It shares borders with Dumfries and Galloway, East Renfrewshire, North Ayrshire, South Ayrshire and South Lanarkshire. The headquarters of the council are located on London Road, Kilma ...

East Dunbartonshire

East Dunbartonshire is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. It borders the north-west of Glasgow and contains many of the suburbs of Glasgow as well as many of the citys commuter towns and villages. East Dunbartonshire also shares borders wit ...

East Lothian

East Lothian is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland, as well as a historic county, registration county and lieutenancy area. The county was also known as Haddingtonshire. In 1975, the historic county was incorporated for local government purp ...

East Renfrewshire

East Renfrewshire is one of 32 council areas of Scotland. Until 1975, it formed part of the county of Renfrewshire for local government purposes along with the modern council areas of Renfrewshire, North Ayrshire and Inverclyde. Although no longe ...

Falkirk Council

Falkirk is one of 32 unitary authority council areas of Scotland. It was formed on 1 April 1996 from the exact boundaries of Falkirk District Council by way of the Local Government etc. Act 1994. Prior to 1975 the majority of the council area was ...

Fife

Fife is a council area and historic county of Scotland. It is situated between the Firth of Tay and the Firth of Forth, with inland boundaries to Perth and Kinross and Clackmannanshire. By custom it is widely held to have been one of the major Pi ...

Inverclyde

Inverclyde is one of 32 council areas used for local government in Scotland. Together with the East Renfrewshire and Renfrewshire council areas, Inverclyde forms part of the historic county of Renfrewshire, which currently exists as a registratio ...

Midlothian

Midlothian is a historic county, registration county, lieutenancy area and one of 32 council areas of Scotland used for local government. Midlothian lies in the east-central Lowlands, bordering the City of Edinburgh, East Lothian and the Scottish ...

North Lanarkshire

North Lanarkshire is one of 32 council areas of Scotland. It borders the northeast of the City of Glasgow and contains many of Glasgows suburbs and commuter towns and villages. It also borders East Dunbartonshire, Falkirk, Stirling, South Lanarks ...

Renfrewshire

Renfrewshire is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. Located in the west central Lowlands, it is one of three council areas contained within the boundaries of the historic county of Renfrewshire, the others being East Renfrewshire to the east ...

Scottish Borders

The Scottish Borders is one of 32 council areas of Scotland. It borders the City of Edinburgh, Dumfries and Galloway, East Lothian, Midlothian, South Lanarkshire, West Lothian and, to the south-west, south and east, the English counties of Cumbri ...

South Ayrshire

South Ayrshire is one of thirty-two council areas of Scotland, covering the southern part of Ayrshire. It borders onto Dumfries and Galloway, East Ayrshire and North Ayrshire. Following the 2017 council election, the Labour Party and the Scottish ...

South Lanarkshire

South Lanarkshire is one of 32 unitary authorities of Scotland. It borders the south-east of the City of Glasgow and contains some of Greater Glasgows suburbs,also containing many towns and villages. It also shares borders with Dumfries and Gallo ...

Stirling (council area)

The Stirling council area is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland, and has a population of about 94.330. It was created under the Local Government etc Act 1994 with the boundaries of the Stirling district of the former Central local government ...

West Dunbartonshire

West Dunbartonshire is one of the 32 local government council areas of Scotland. The area lies to the west of the City of Glasgow and contains many of Glasgows commuter towns and villages, as well as the citys suburbs. West Dunbartonshire also bo ...

West Lothian

West Lothian is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland, and one of its historic counties. The county, which was also known as Linlithgowshire, was bounded geographically by the Avon to the west and the Almond to the east. The modern council area ...

History of Scottish devolution

The decision of the Parliament of Scotland to ratify the Treaty of Union in 1707 was not unanimous and, from that time, individuals and organisations have advocated the reinstatement of a Scottish Parliament. Some have argued for devolution – a S ...

Scottish Assembly

The Scottish Assembly was a proposed legislature for Scotland that would have devolved a set list of powers from the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The Labour Government led the Scotland Act 1978 through Westminster which provided for the esta ...

Association of Chief Police Officers in Scotland

The Association of Chief Police Officers in Scotland was the professional voice of police leadership in Scotland, including the Assistant Chief Constable in the British Transport Police responsible for Scotland. Some superintendents and senior su ...

Fettesgate

Fettesgate was the term given to a major scandal involving the Lothian and Borders Police force in the 1990s, from its Fettes Avenue headquarters near Fettes College in Edinburgh. The "Fettesgate scandal", as the incident was quickly called, bega ...

Police and Fire Reform (Scotland) Act 2012

The Police and Fire Reform Act 2012 is an Act of the Scottish Parliament. This legislation merged the eight separate police forces and fire and rescue services in Scotland, plus several central agencies, into single agencies covering the whole of ...